SABRINA TAVERNISE “Mystical Form of Islam Suits Sufis in Pakistan” http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/26/world/worldspecial/26lahore.html
パキスタンのラホールで先月開かれた、11世紀のスーフィ行者Ali bin Usman al-Hajveriの命日を記念する祭りについて。記事に曰く、
聖者Ali bin Usman al-Hajveri（愛称はData Ganj Baksh＝宝を与える者）について、Raza Rumi “Data Ganj Baksh: Lahore’s oldest guide”という2009年の記事*1から少し引用しておく；
Thousands of Muslim worshipers paid tribute to the patron saint of this eastern Pakistani city this month by dancing, drumming and smoking pot.
It is not an image one ordinarily associates with Pakistan, a country whose tormented western border region dominates the news. But it is an important part of how Islam is practiced here, a tradition that goes back a thousand years to Islam’s roots in South Asia.
It is Sufism, a mystical form of Islam brought into South Asia by wandering thinkers who spread the religion east from the Arabian Peninsula. They carried a message of equality that was deeply appealing to indigenous societies riven by caste and poverty. To this day, Sufi shrines stand out in Islam for allowing women free access.
In modern times, Pakistan’s Sufis have been challenged by a stricter form of Islam that dominates in Saudi Arabia. That orthodox, often political Islam was encouraged in Pakistan in the 1980s by the American-supported dictator, Muhammad Zia ul-Haq. Since then, the fundamentalists’ aggressive stance has tended to eclipse that of their moderate kin, whose shrines and processions have become targets in the war here.
But if last week’s stomping, twirling, singing, drumming kaleidoscope of a crowd is any indication, Sufism still has a powerful appeal.
Living nearly 11 centuries ago, Syed Ali bin Usman Al Hajveri was not a Lahori but a resident of Lahore’s cultural step-cousin, Ghazni, until he arrived in India and wandered in northern India before settling in Lahore for the last 34 years of his life. This was the time when mystics from Central Asia, in their constant urge to discover new vistas of spiritual exploration, started to travel and settle in different parts of the Indian subcontinent. It remains a mystery as to why Data Ganj Bakhsh would have chosen Lahore as the final stop in his life long journey. Perhaps the secular interpretation could be that Lahore was an inevitable stop over for all the Central Asian and Turkic caravans and armies and provided the right kind of environment for a foreign mystic to amalgamate into. A little before Ganj Bakhsh’s arrival, Lahore had been resurrected from the earlier ravages of time by the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmood and his son Masood.
NYTの記事にもあるように、アラビアの東、印度世界や東南亜細亜へのイスラームの伝播にスーフィズムの功績が大きかったということはいうまでもないが、アラビアの西、つまりアフリカ大陸へのイスラームの伝播に対するスーフィズムの貢献も無視することはできないだろう。スーフィズムに関しては、ここで私市正年『イスラム聖者』をマークしておく。スーフィズムについては、例えばhttp://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20060824/1156417435 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20070418/1176869274 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20070927/1190866367 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20090403/1238775017 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20090716/1247720308で言及している。
During the 34 years of his Lahore residence, Ali Hajveri became the most revered of dervishes whose inclusive and tolerant mystical path attracted the majority of its non-Muslim population. Let us not forget that the non-Muslim population was also a subject of a pernicious caste hierarchy where access to templar gods and clerical blessings was denied to a good number of the population. This was the beginning of a centuries’ long process of peaceful conversions. Islam’s egalitarianism and its larger message of equality before God was quite a magical idea for many, not to mention that the Sufi path did not require conversion per se. This is why Data Darbar has been a hub of inter-communal quests for spiritual attainment.
Other than that, Ali Hajveri’s important contribution to the corpus of documented mystical thought is the treatise that he authored and left for posterity. Known as Kashf- al- Mahjub, or “Unveiling of the Hidden,” it is a monumental document striking for its communicative tone and systematic way of discussing mysticism.