http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20050731で、Hanif Kureishi氏のエッセイを紹介したが、8月になって『ガーディアン』に掲載された"The carnival of culture"で、Kureishi氏の父親について言及されている;

My father was an Indian Muslim who didn't care for Islam; his childhood hadn't been much improved by a strict schooling and teachers with sticks. Towards the end of his life he preferred Buddhism to Islam, as there was less aggression and punishment in it. ("And altogether less religion," as he put it.) He had also become disillusioned with the political version of Islam, which my father's school friend, Zulfi Bhutto - who the liberal classes thought would become a democratic and secular leader - was introducing to Pakistan.

The mosques I visited, in Whitechapel and Shepherd's Bush, were nothing like any church I'd attended. The scenes, to me, were extraordinary, and I was eager to capture them in my novel. There would be passionate orators haranguing a group of people sitting on the floor. One demagogue would replace another, of course, but the "preaching" went on continuously, as listeners of all races came and went.

I doubt whether you'd see anything like this now, but there would be diatribes against the west, Jews and - their favourite subject - homosexuals. In my naivety I wondered whether, at the end of his speech, the speaker might take questions or engage in some sort of dialogue with his audience. But there was nothing like this. Most of the audience for this sort of thing was, I noticed, under 30 years old.


What did disturb me was this. These men believed they had access to the Truth, as stated in the Qur'an. There could be no doubt - or even much dispute about moral, social and political problems - because God had the answers. Therefore, for them, to argue with the Truth was like trying to disagree with the facts of geometry. For them the source of all virtue and vice was the pleasure and displeasure of Allah.

To be a responsible human being was to submit to this. As the Muslim writer Shabbir Akhtar put it in his book, A Faith for All Seasons, "Allah is the subject of faith and loving obedience, not of rational inquiry or purely discursive thought. Unaided human reason is inferior in status to the gift of faith. Indeed, reason is useful only in so far as it finds a use in the larger service of faith."

 タイトルにあるマルティカルチャリズムだが、 Kureishi氏は「効果的なマルティカルチャリズム」とは「お祭りや食べ物の表層的な交換ではなくて、諸理念の荒々しくて真摯な交換(robust and committed exchange)」であり、「耐えるに値するコンフリクト」であるという。氏は、

Wittgenstein compared ideas to tools that you can use for different ends. Some open the world up. The idea that you can do everything with one tool is ridiculous. Without adequate intellectual tools and the ability to think freely, too many Muslims are incapable of establishing a critical culture that goes beyond a stifling Islamic paradigm. As the Muslim academic Tariq Ramadan states, "Muslims now need, more than ever, to be self-critical. That means educating young Muslims in more than religious formalism."
と書いているが、このパラグラフの言葉を使えば、マルティカルチャリズムの実践とは"dequate intellectual tools"を贈り、"the ability to think freely"の強化をエンカレッジすることだといえるだろう*1。また、これは抑圧されている、文化内部の多様性を喚起するすることでもある;

If the idea of multiculturalism makes some people vertiginous, monoculturalism - of whatever sort - is much worse. Political and social systems have to define themselves in terms of what they exclude, and conservative Islam is leaving out a lot. In New York recently, a Turkish woman told me that Islam was denying its own erotic heritage, as shown in the Arabian Nights, The Perfumed Garden, and the tales of Hamza. Indeed, the Arabic scholar Robert Irwin says of the Arabian Nights: "In the modern Middle East, with certain exceptions, the 'Nights' is not regarded by Arab intellectuals as literature at all."


 Michael Barone
"Cultures aren't equal"


 Marina Warner
"Escaping the net"

Frequently, after a book has made a deep impression, and a scene has remained with me, indelibly, I will return to the passage and find that it's made up of a few sentences only, sometimes of great simplicity; and that its impact lies in that part's relations to the whole of the book, the timing of its happening, and the way the writer has led up to that moment and then away from it. It is a chord, but the chord would not sound without the piece and without our immersion in it: the movie in the brain takes place between the work, its writers, and its readers over a period of time.

The internet is a library, a reference library, brilliantly adapted to looking something up, creating inventories, updating catalogues, adding new entries in a dictionary or an encyclopaedia, and consulting directories. The web serves magically to store knowledge that would be costly in paper, in volume, to print: references, appendices, original background sources, documentation of a detailed kind, extra apparatus in general. But I don't think that writing and reading as acts of imagination can exist in cyberspace only; words don't become flesh for me unless I print out and read the materialised text; but even so, the uniform, ugly look of the copies does not draw me into the mood of the work and its meaning or imprint its contents on my memory as deeply as reading it in a book.
 インターネットというかディスプレイを通してブラウザーで読むことが紙の本を読むことには及ばない理由というのは、Warnerさんによれば、それは触覚というか紙の本を直に触ることに求められるらしいのだ。そして、彼女は"I believe computers should never be thought of as replacements for books and reading books; that libraries should not become workstations; that the emphasis on teaching children and students through the use of personal computers and downloaded documents has contributed gravely to the psychological and cognitive difficulties of students and younger people, with serious consequences for all of us"とまでいう。その「重大な帰結」とは、"reading in cyberspace seems to me to make different use of cognitive faculties, unfleshing the word, and correspondingly disembodying memories"ということである。では、何故触覚なのか。それに答えるために、Warnerさんは、フリードリッヒ・フレーベルの教育理論に依拠する;

I'd like to propose a re-evaluation of some older ideas about developing understanding as well as deepening responses and pleasure that one takes from the representation of experience in literature, however unpleasant. Friedrich Froebel was one of several Romantic pedagogues who, under the influence of Rousseau, founded kindergartens; he believed in educating children through their senses - through direct bodily involvement with shape and colour and form and texture and weight and process: children were like plants and needed physical nurture for their qualities as individuals to grow. Froebel's theories in turn influenced Maria Montessori, and then entered the psychology of the Bauhaus, where in the foundation year, students were sent out into the streets and the countryside to gather up examples of every kind of matter in every state: from smooth pebbles to burst balloons, floating thistledown to torn posters, to re-acquaint themselves, as if they were children again, with every sensory circumstance in which reality has its being.



  1. 義書(意味の分類、古語の解釈)
  2. 字書(かたちによる分類)
  3. 韻書/韻図(音による分類)



 所謂牛津大学出版局のVery Short Introductionシリーズというか岩波の「一冊でわかる」シリーズの1冊。
 『文学理論』というタイトルだけれど、ディコンストラクションとかニュー・ヒストリシズムetc.という理論の流派を章立てして、それぞれを概説するというスタイルではない。「意味」とか「物語」とか「アイデンティティ」といったトピックを章立てして、そのトピックについて、どのような理論的アプローチがなされているのかを示すというスタイルが採られている。その理由を著者は、「現代の理論を、解釈をめぐって競合するアプローチ、解釈法として扱ってしまうと、広く常識に挑戦し、いかに意味が創造され、人間のアイデンティティがいかに形をなすのかを探究するところから来る面白さや迫力をごっそり見失うことになる」(p.iii)と「まえがき」で述べている。これは成功しているかどうかは評価がわかれるのではないか。私に言わせれば、この原則から一見逸脱していると思われるような「文学とカルチュラル・スタディーズ」のような章の方が面白かった。また、「文学理論」の存立の条件を省察する「文学とは何か? 文学は重要か?」とか。章の最後の部分から引用すると、


 因みに、「文学理論」ということで、私のお薦めは、廣野由美子『批評理論入門 「フランケンシュタイン」解剖講義』(中公新書)です。

 8月9日は、東京大学社会科学研究所編『現代日本社会1 課題と視角』(東京大学出版会、1991)も読了。

*1:端的に、"When it comes to teaching the young, we have the human duty to inform them that there is more than one book in the world, and more than one voice, and that if they wish to have their voices heard by others, everyone else is entitled to the same thing."と主張されている。