ところで、日本語のサボるとsabotage（仏語／英語）はかなりの違いで、サボるは大体怠けると同義ですが、sabotageは積極的な妨害・破壊を含む。どうして、日本語になることによって、おとなしくなったのだろうか。sabotageの語源ですが、その意味を考えると、”strikers' supposed tactic of throwing old shoes into machinery”というのに頷いてしまうが、これは辞書的にはあっさりと否定されているようだ；
1910, from Fr. sabotage, from saboter "to sabotage, bungle," lit. "walk noisily," from sabot "wooden shoe" (13c.), altered (by association with O.Fr. bot "boot") from M.Fr. savate "old shoe," from an unidentified source that also produced similar words in O.Prov., Port., Sp., It., Arabic and Basque. In Fr., the sense of "deliberately and maliciously destroying property" originally was in ref. to labor disputes, but the oft-repeated story that the modern meaning derives from strikers' supposed tactic of throwing old shoes into machinery is not supported by the etymology. Likely it was not meant as a literal image; the word was used in Fr. in a variety of "bungling" senses, such as "to play a piece of music badly." The verb is first attested 1918 in Eng., from the noun. Saboteur is 1921, a borrowing from Fr.
ここで、”to play a piece of music badly”、”botching a musical performance”というのを勘案すれば、これはシャリヴァリに関係がありそうだということになる。ということで、sabotageの歴史を考えるには、ヨーロッパ民俗学の領域に踏み込まざるをえないようだ。
Shoes for Industry.
Dear Word Detective: I had heard that the word "sabotage" had a meaning in French manufacturing history similar to what the term "Luddite" has in English manufacturing history, but I cannot confirm this. Can you help? -- Clarinat87, via the Internet.
To answer your question, you and I will have to back up a bit, in case other readers don't know the story of "luddite" to which you refer.
According to legend, Ned Lud (or "Ludd" -- opinions vary) was the "village idiot" of a town in Leicestershire, England in 1779. One fine day, our boy Ned went completely bananas, ran into the shop of a textile manufacturer, and destroyed several of his looms for no good reason. Now fast forward a few years to about 1811, when English textile workers, their employment threatened by new mechanical looms, rebelled and started destroying the new machinery. Needing a catchy name, the rebels called themselves "Luddites" after old Ned, and ever since then the term has been applied to anyone who resists new technology.
The story you've probably heard about "sabotage" is much in the same spirit. "Sabot" is the French word for a wooden shoe, or clog. Various stories tell of French workers, like their English brethren, rebelling against the depredations of the Industrial Revolution, in this case by tossing their "sabots" into the newfangled machinery, bringing production to a halt.
It's an appealing story. After all, who wouldn't like to throw an occasional shoe (or a wrench) into the machines that set our frenetic social pace? But the story isn't true, and there's no evidence that any "sabots" were ever tossed. "Sabotage" actually comes from the French verb "saboter," which means to make a loud clattering with wooden shoes. Metaphorically, the French use "sabotage" to mean a variety of things -- botching a musical performance, doing a bad job at anything, or deliberately destroying tools or machinery. This last meaning was the one carried over into English, where "sabotage" took on the additional meaning of damage done clandestinely to impair an enemy's ability to fight.