Washington Postに掲載されたAssociated Pressの記事;

As spelling changes, Portugal feels the empire striking back

The Associated Press
Saturday, April 26, 2008; 12:17 PM

LISBON, Portugal -- Portugal's former empire is striking back _ through language.

As Brazil rises on the international stage and its one-time colonial master wanes, a proposed standardization of the Portuguese language would require hundreds of words to be spelled the Brazilian way.

The Portuguese government approves, but some here are mortified.

"There is no need for us to take a back seat to Brazil," protested Vasco Graca Moura, a respected poet who is among those leading the charge against the changes.

For a once-mighty power whose language is an official one for some 230 million people worldwide, it's a blow to pride comparable to making the British adopt American spelling _ "honor," for instance, instead of "honour."

But advocates say the benefits include easier Internet searches in Portuguese and uniform legalese for international contracts.

Portuguese officials hope it can advance an old ambition of getting Portuguese adopted as an official language at the United Nations, which currently has six.

The government has asked Parliament to ratify an agreement with the world's seven other Portuguese-speaking countries _ Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, East Timor, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, and Sao Tome and Principe.

The changes would match spelling more closely to the way words are pronounced by removing silent consonants, as Brazilians do. Thus "optimo" (great) would become "otimo," and "accao" (action) would become "acao."

The alphabet would expand to 26 letters by adding k, w and y, to accommodate words like "kilometro" and "kwanza," the Angolan currency. New rules on hyphens and accents would change "auto-estrada" (highway) to "autoestrada."

Only about 2,000 words out of the 110,000-word Portuguese vocabulary are affected and modifications are to be adopted by all seven countries, but three-quarters of the changes fall on Portugal.

In Brazil, independent of Portugal since 1822, some sympathize with the mother country's wounded pride.

"It's natural there is resistance," said Ottaviano de Fiore, an academic adviser at the Museum of the Portuguese Language in Sao Paulo. "We used to be the colony, and all of a sudden we are the ones colonizing them. That's going to be strange."

But there's no escaping reality; Brazil is bigger and more populous. It has 190 million Portuguese speakers and an economy big enough for the European Union to be offering it a political and economic alliance, granting it the same status as China, India and Russia.

Portugal, on the other hand, is one of the least influential of the EU's 27 member states. Its population of 10.6 million accounts for only around 1 percent of the bloc's GDP.

Brazilian culture abounds here. Portuguese have embraced Brazilian restaurants and "caipirinha," a distilled sugarcane drink. Brazilian TV soap operas are prime-time staples.

This month, Parliament invited proponents and dissenters to a debate about spelling, and it ran a passionate nine hours.

Graca Moura saw a capitulation to Brazilian economic and diplomatic influence, while literature professor Carlos Reis chided the holdouts for clinging to unnecessary orthodoxies.

"Should Portugal remain bound to a conservative view of spelling, as if it were the last bulwark of Portuguese identity?" Reis asked.

Parliament is to vote on the changes on May 15.

On blogs, tempers have flared over what the Portuguese call brasileirizacao, or Brazilization. One anonymous writer calls it "a dictatorial imposition." Another counters that with such resistance to change, "we'd still be speaking Latin!"

Yet Spain and France have had little trouble settling similar linguistic differences with their former colonies, and Jose Saramago, Portugal's only Nobel literature laureate, says the resisters' attitude smacks of linguistic chauvinism.

"We have to get over this idea that we own the language," said Saramago, 85. "The language is owned by those who speak it, for better or for worse."


Associated Press writers Tales Azzoni in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Elaine Ganley in Paris; and Ciaran Giles in Madrid, Spain, contributed to this report.

さて、綴りということで、独逸語にエスツェット(ß)という独特の綴り字がある*1。私は最初にこれを見たときにBだと思って笑われたという記憶があるが。瑞西ではこれを使わず、ssと綴る。たしか、ヴィム・ヴェンダースの『ベルリン天使の詩』で、ブルーノ・ガンツが ßではなくssと書くシーンがあって、伯林なのにこれはどうよという批判があったが、ヴェンダース瑞西生まれの天使なんだからいいじゃんと突っぱねたということがあったと思う(ブルーノ・ガンツ瑞西人)。葡萄牙ということでは、ヴェンダースは『リスボン物語』というのを撮っていますね。
ベルリン・天使の詩 デジタルニューマスター版 [DVD]

ベルリン・天使の詩 デジタルニューマスター版 [DVD]

リスボン物語 [DVD]

リスボン物語 [DVD]

なお、 Jose Saramagoについては、http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20070720/1184897369も参照されたい。