16日の『ガーディアン』に載ったJames Campbell"High peak haikus"というゲイリー・スナイダーへのインタヴュー記事を読む。
 スナイダーは『寒山詩(Cold Mountain Poems)』の英訳者だったのだ。

Men ask the way to Cold Mountain
... there's no through trail
In summer, ice doesn't melt
The rising sun blurs in swirling fog.
How did I make it?

Most translations from Chinese and Japanese are "too wordy", he says. "The early translators would not believe what was in front of their eyes, which was very short lines. Arthur Waley's translations are outmoded now, though in their time they were helpful. Ezra Pound was a brilliant amateur, who by luck came up with a few good lines, but not many." The economy of classical Chinese poetry has influenced his own. "So much occidental poetry is full of religious imagery or mythological reference, both of which are absent from the Chinese. Chinese poetry is secular, logical and unsymbolic."
 ところで、Isabella Wai"Exiles 'have no home place on earth':A chat with Gary Snyder"Road to East Asia:A journal on contemporary East Asian literature in English13, 1998というのを見つけた。

 同じ16日の『ガーディアン』で、以前にhttp://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20050628でも取り上げたことのあるTristram Hunt氏が「中産階級」について省察している*1

When the middle class emerged at the end of the 18th century, it was regarded as a revolutionary class committed to uprooting land, church and state. But the middle classes have since lost sight of their radical heritage - transformed from dangerous insurgents into the docile denizens of middle England.

It was the industrial revolution that made the middle class and the middle class that made the industrial revolution. With riches on the back of cotton, steel, mining and chemicals, a new class was born, between landowners and labourers: men like John Gladstone of Liverpool, Robert Peel of Bury, or John Marshall of Leeds.


while their industry brought riches, it did not secure social approbation. Central to their identity was an outsider's fear of persecution, partly derived from centuries of official censure of nonconformity. While not all the middle classes were dissenters, the Unitarians and Methodists of Manchester and Birmingham were at the forefront of middle-class life. And from these chapels emerged a determination to build a civilisation free from establishment disapproval.

The rational dissent that nonconformity nurtured extended from the spiritual to the secular. For underpinning the middle-class vision was a culture of critical inquiry. In contrast to the boorish aristocracy's backward love of bloodsports, the middle classes cultivated an urban enlightenment in museums, botanical gardens and libraries. Provincial newspapers such as the Manchester Guardian championed the forces of progress against the Tory, Anglican ancien regime, and the French revolution was admired by many for its rational philosophy and support of individual rights.
19世紀になると、「中産階級」は「建築」を通してアイデンティティを示すようになる。ただし、ここでいう「建築」とは私的な邸宅ではなく、市庁舎、駅、毛織物交易所や倉庫といったものである。しかし、「中産階級」の勝利は"a weakening of mission"を導く。それには、「中産階級」の拡大も関わっている;

Contrary to the Marxist schema, industrial capitalism did not divide wealth into ever more antagonistic classes of haves and have-nots. Instead, as George Orwell later mused, "the tendency of advanced capitalism has [therefore] been to enlarge the middle class and not to wipe it out, as it once seemed likely to do". The cost of this blurring of contours was a belief in the unique purpose of the middle class.
 20世紀になると、"cities were increasingly marginal to middle-class identity"。所謂「郊外化」である。それはさらに保守化と私的領域への引きこもりを導く;

With them vanished that link to urban liberalism; to be middle class was more and more a matter of mod cons, semi-detached houses and a suburban social set. Leisure and the private domain, not civic pride and public calling, was what defined a middle-class life.
The Aldermaston marches and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament were arguably the last gasp of middle-class radicalism as consumption and income took over. Boden catalogues and trips to Ikea - rather than the public sphere of political liberty, critical inquiry or rational dissent - now mark out the British middle class.







 ドイツのいくつかのドイツ語語源辞典や哲学史辞典を見てみると、Umweltということばは、ドイツ語を使うデンマークの詩人バッゲセン(J. Baggesen)が、身のまわりの環境を意味するものとして一八〇〇年に造語したものらしい。その後このUmweltという語はフランス語のミリュー(milieu、やはり同じような意味での環境)の訳語として使われたり、いろいろな人々によってさまざまに定義づけられたりしてきた。しかしUmweltに明確な概念を与え、新しい認識を打ち立てたのはユクスキュルである(p.164)。


 注目は、西原和久「廣松社会哲学の現代的意義 〈社会的行為論〉の射程」だろうか。


*1:"All mod cons"