Spyros Marchetos “Golden Dawn and the rise of fascism” http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jun/19/golden-dawn-fascism-greece
The electoral take-off of Golden Dawn took Greece by surprise. In the space of a few months it passed from insignificance to almost 7% of the national vote, a percentage it maintained at the June elections, when the voters had been properly apprised of its neo-Nazi character*2 . This party now has a rather even geographical spread and sex distribution, slightly higher among men and in rightwing areas, and also a definite social basis – mainly small proprietors, unemployed, members of the security forces, plus the criminal underworld.
Fascists did not suddenly multiply in Greece. Rather, extreme right ideas and values gradually permeated public consciousness, and became mainstream in the last 20 years. Then the troika (of the European commission, European Central Bank and the IMF) imposed measures of violent pauperisation, and even created widespread perceptions of decay and victimisation, and feelings of national persecution and humiliation. All these, as the US historian Robert Paxton*3 argues in his magisterial Anatomy of Fascism, help fascism rise. Finally, when the crisis stole the clientelist appeal of the ruling parties, many of their voters turned towards those who professed openly what traditional politicians only implied.
Golden Dawn appeared on the electoral radar in November 2011, when all the other forces of the right participated in the unelected, and unloved, government of a banker, Lucas Papademos. It projected an anti-systemic image, but actually its objectives and practices were in harmony with those of powerful Greek institutions. For example, immigrants were first demonised by the state itself. They were interned, and their rights were cancelled in practice. Bureaucrats failed to enforce protective labour legislation. The police and the judiciary do not prosecute fascists under existing laws, which are more or less adequate, and don't penalise racial attacks, antisemitism and spreading of hate, all trademarks of Golden Dawn.
さらに既成保守（右派）勢力の「黄金の暁」への迎合。保守政党New Democracyの某幹部は「黄金の暁」を自らの「姉妹政党」だとまで述べた*4。そして左翼の無力・無策。Spyros Marchetos氏は（既成左翼よりも）「市民社会」による抵抗にこそ希望があるとしている；
The rise of fascism also owes a lot to mainstream media. Effectively unregulated by the state and owned by a few small Berlusconis, Greek television channels have for decades been cultivating chauvinism, racism, sexism and anti-immigrant hate. Now they habitually present Golden Dawn cadres as normal people, explore their lighter side and even turn them into lifestyle icons or tele-celebrities. They rarely discuss the violent crimes for which many of these people have been accused or convicted.
Hope comes mainly from the reaction of civil society. In recent weeks local anti-fascist fronts have sprung up from below in many places, with scant support from the official left. Mass anti-Nazi rallies, mobilising many thousands of people, shook the principal cities of Greece. There is even talk of self-defence groups, comprising locals and immigrants, that will fight Golden Dawn in the streets and provide to all the security that the state now offers to few.
*2:See Jon Henley and Lizzy Davies “Greece's far-right Golden Dawn party maintains share of vote” http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jun/18/greece-far-right-golden-dawn
*4:“New Democracy official 'not bothered' by Golden Dawn” http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_wsite1_1_10/06/2012_446219
*5:Mentioned in http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20080806/1217988192