Pompeian red

Charlotte Higgins “Pompeii shows its true colours” http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/sep/22/pompeii-red-yellow

ポンペイ遺跡のフレスコ画にある「赤」(Pompeian red)はそもそもは「赤」ではなく「黄色」であり、ヴェスヴィオス火山のガスの侵蝕によって赤くなったということが伊太利の国立光学研究所*1の研究によって明らかになったという話。但し、ポンペイフレスコ画としてはいちばん有名な「秘儀のヴィラ(Villa of the Mysteries)」の壁画*2の赤は元々の赤であるという。

Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, professor of classics at Cambridge University, and author of Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum, said: "One of the ironies of this is that red was constantly forged in antiquity. Red was an extremely expensive and valued colour. The proper, bright red was based on minium [red lead] imported from Armenia. What we often think of 'Pompeiian red', though, was a poor man's version, made by giving yellow walls a red wash."
Pompeian red*3は謂わば「貧乏人」の赤だったわけだが、18世紀にポンペイ遺跡が発掘されて以来、英国ではダイニング・ルームの色として好まれている。その契機として、18世紀に流行した貴族子弟のヨーロッパ大陸修学旅行(「グランド・ツアー」)が言及されている;

The discovery of apparently pristine houses in Pompeii, Herculaneum and elsewhere had an enormous effect on the history of taste in Britain. Generations of gentlemen were influenced by visiting Italy on the Grand Tour, not least the architect Sir John Soane, who saw the excavations in 1780. Judging by his frequent use of the colour in decorative schemes, "Pompeiian red was his favourite colour", according to Tim Knox, director of Sir John Soane's Museum.

Amanda Vickery, professor of history at Queen Mary, University of London, and author of Behind Closed Doors: At Home in Georgian England, said: "The Grand Tour shaped the cultural parameters of the ruling elite for 150 years. It was like a gap year, and it stamped on these men what good taste was."