Jonathan Jones “Fear of cannibalism drives us to look at this 'monstrous' image. And that's OK” http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jun/15/cannibalism-monstrous-image-rudy-eugene

米国フロリダの顔面齧り付き事件*1に関して最もショッキングだったことのひとつは、顔を囓られて血まみれのRonald Poppoの写真と警察に射殺されて全裸で横たわるRudy Eugeneの死体写真が全世界に配信され、世界中のメディアがそれを転載したことだろう。
Jonathan Jones氏はRudy Eugeneの死体写真を見せることの倫理的な是非については関心はないが、それを見たいという欲望は人類の「カニバリズム」についての抑圧された記憶と関係があるのではないかという;

I would argue that it is completely natural to want to – briefly – look at this, because the cannibal myth is central to human culture. If anything can be said to be "hardwired" into the human imagination, it is the fear and perhaps, at some deep level, the memory of cannibalism.

Human beings have eaten one another from necessity and for religious or magical purposes at various points in history and prehistory. Cannibalism was practised by stone age people who used the caves of Cheddar Gorge*2. It resurfaced during the famine in Russia in 1920-21. Shipwreck survivors have been driven to it – cannibalism is the hidden horror that haunts Gericault's painting of people cast adrift on a desolate sea, The Raft of the Medusa. Yet for every recorded case of cannibalism, there are far more images of it that can be called mythic and fantastical.

先ず集合的無意識というユンク的な概念を信じるかどうか。またここに挙げられているのはどれも(後に言及されるダンテの『神曲』の例も含めて)〈緊急避難〉の極限というべき事例である。さらにより最近の事例として、アンデス山中飛行機墜落事件を挙げてもよい(cf. リード『生存者』)。ここで喚起されるのは、これもまたトラウマ的な記憶ではあろうが、極限的な飢餓の記憶ではないだろうか。
生存者 (新潮文庫)

生存者 (新潮文庫)

The first European travellers to the New World brought back tales of cannibals. The sensational descriptions of their supposed rituals in Amerigo Vespucci's early 16th century writings were calculated to feed European imaginations with horrible pictures of otherness, of "inhuman" behaviour. European folk beliefs feature human-like creatures that feed on human flesh: the werewolf*3 and vampire*4 are supernatural cannibals. All this suggest that the difference between those who eat people and those who don't is quite basic to our definition of the human. In colonial times, this turned into coarse racist fantasy, The medieval poet Dante saw deeper: for him, the human in us is fragile, and can be overwhelmed by circumstance. In his Inferno he tells the tale of Count Ugolino, imprisoned with his small sons in a tower in Pisa, shut away in a dungeon in the dark and left to starve. His children died first. Blind from hunger, he fed on them.

When Dante first sees Ugolino and the tormentor who imprisoned him in Hell, their two heads stick out of a frozen lake: one chews the other, for all eternity. It is an image not so very different from the reality that confronted the Miami police officers on 26 May.

理性と暴力―現象学と人間科学 (Phaenomenologica)

理性と暴力―現象学と人間科学 (Phaenomenologica)

因みにRudy Eugeneの胃袋にRonald Poppoの身体組織は入っていなかった*7。だから正確に言えばカニバリズム未遂事件?

*1:See http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20120614/1339683625

*2:See Robin McKie “Bones from a Cheddar Gorge cave show that cannibalism helped Britain's earliest settlers survive the ice age” http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/jun/20/ice-age-cannibals-britain-earliest-settlers

*3:狼男については、例えばhttp://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Werwolf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werewolf を参照のこと。

*4:See eg. Richard Sugg “Vampire beliefs still have bite” http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jun/08/vampire-beliefs-skeletons-bulgaria Monica Petrescu “To Many Romanians,Vampires Are A Terrifying Reality: The Long Shadow Of Dracula” http://rense.com/general62/vamp.htm Mentioned in http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20120611/1339386585

*5:Mentioned in http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20091019/1255980916 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20120113/1326474831 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20120508/1336486987

*6:See also http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20061015/1160931891 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20061119/1163959707 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20070812/1186930003 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20070828/1188277338 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20090625/1245935580 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20090709/1247072703 http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20090720/1248055997

*7:“Autopsy finds NO human flesh inside stomach of 'Miami cannibal' who chewed face off homeless man” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2156924/Miami-cannibal-Autopsy-finds-NO-human-flesh-inside-stomach-Rudy-Eugene.html