Universalを巡って(Kwame Anthony Appiah)

http://d.hatena.ne.jp/sumita-m/20080618/1213793132に関連するか。

Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers

Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers

Kwame Anthony Appiah Cosmopolitanism*1から。
全くの赤の他人を理解する可能性を巡って。
Appiahは”People in Ghana, people everywhere, buy and sell, eat, read the papers, watch movies, sleep, go to church or mosque, laugh, marry, make love, commit adultery, go to funerals, die.”(p.94)という。


Cross-cultural analysis reveals that there really are some basic mental traits that are universal—in the sense that they're normal everywhere. It has also confirmed, for that matter, that some universal traits—the incapacity to make senses of other people that we call autism—are found in every human population, too. Building on these traits, on our biological nature, cultures produce a great deal of variety, but also much that is the same. Part of the reason for this is that, in culture as in biology, our human environment presents similar problems; and societies, like natural selection, often settle on the same solution because it is the best available.(p.96)
そして、Donald Brown Human Universalsを援用して、

It is hard[...] to resist the evidence that, starting with our common biology and the shared problems of the human situation (and granted that we may also share cultural traits because of our common origins), human societies have ended up having many deep things in common. Among them are practices like music, poetry, dance, marriage, funerals; values resembling courtesy, hospitality, sexual modesty, generosity, reciprocity, the resolution of social conflict; concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, parent and child, past, present, and future. (pp.96-97)
さらに、ヴィトゲンシュタインの「虎が喋れたとしても、私たちは理解できないだろう」という言葉が引かれる(p.97)「虎」との間では不可能な「理解」を可能にするのが”a shared human nature”であることになる*2
また、 Appiahは「異人との関わりは常に特定の異人との関わりになる」ことを強調する(p.98)。

The problem of cross-cultural communication can seem immensely difficult in theory, when we are trying to imagine making sense of a stranger in the abstract. But the great lesson of anthropology is that when the stranger is no longer imaginary, but real and present, sharing a human social life, you may like or dislike, you may agree or disagree; but, if it is what you both want, you can make sense of each other in the end. (p.99)