Edgar

Reuterの記事;


あなたは「本当の」イングランド王の末裔ではありませんか?




[ 2007年01月12日 16時43分 ]

[ロンドン 10日 ロイター] イングランド王室の“正統な”後継者を捜し出すキャンペーンが始まっている。

英国、米国、オーストラリア、ドイツ、ノルウェーの各紙にこんな広告が載った。「あなたの家系を1066年までたどれませんか? あなたの先祖がイングランドの王になった可能性はありませんか?」

エドガー王子は大叔父であるエドワード懺悔王の後継者に指名されていたが、エドワードが1066年に亡くなった後、戴冠することはなかった。代わりに王位についたのはハロルド2世だった。

ウィリアム征服王はノルマンディから海を渡りイングランドに侵入、「ヘイスティングズの戦い」でハロルド軍を撃破した。10代だったエドガー王子はウィリアムに服従した。

イングランドの歴史的環境を保全することを目的としているイングリッシュ・ヘリテージは広告で次のように質問している。「あなたはエドガー王子の末裔ではありませんか?」

歴史のイフを研究するために、系統学者たちはウェブサイト(http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/hastings)で、エドガー王子に最も近い祖先の名前と証拠書類を提供するよう呼びかけている。

系統学者のニック・バラット氏は「もし、ウィリアムが1066年に王位を簒奪しなければ、英国史は大きく変わっていたでしょう。今とは異なる言語を話し、最も近い同盟国はスカンジナビア諸国だと考え、全く異なる統治機構を持っていたに違いありません」と語った。

[日本語訳:ラプター]
http://www.excite.co.jp/News/odd/00081168587862.html

日本でいえば、南朝の子孫いませんかという感じなのか。
記事だけではわからないところがあったので、English Heritageの頁を見てみる。そこでは以下のようにEdgarの正統性が主張されている;

England - 1066: At the time, England had been formed of many small kingdoms and the Saxons saw themselves as a number of different countries ruled by one English King - Edward the Confessor. His death in 1066, with no offspring, led to conflict over the rightful heir to the English throne, which in turn led to the Battle of Hastings.

King Harold: Harold Godwinson's claim to the throne of England was not based on a strong blood tie, although his sister Edith had married Edward the Confessor. Harold, an Anglo Saxon, was the Earl of Wessex, one of the most powerful Nobles in England, and the Witan (a council consisting of 60 of England's most powerful nobles) offered the crown to him in preference to all other contenders.

Edgar the Aetheling: Edgar was a direct descendent of Alfred the Great, the most respected of all Anglo-Saxon Kings, and was the rightful heir to Edward the Confessor. Although he should have been crowned King of England, he was only ten years old when Edward died, did not have the support of the Witan and was not considered strong enough to defend the country against the Normans and the Vikings. He did not stand a chance against the power and might of Harold Godwinson.
http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.10807
Alfred the Greatの直系ということが重要なのか。でもこれだけでは、肝心のEdward the Confessorとの血縁関係がどうだったのかはわからない。リンクされているOxford Dictionary of National Biographyを見ると、

Edgar was born before 1057, perhaps in 1052, and probably in Hungary, where his father Edward Ætheling finally found refuge from Cnut's attempts to eliminate him. His mother, Agatha, was kinswoman of a German emperor, either Henry II or Henry III. Edgar's two sisters, Margaret and Christina, were apparently younger. Edward Ætheling was brought to England in 1057, with his family, presumably to be heir to the throne. He died almost immediately. Allegations that Earl Harold had him poisoned are not only unfounded, but assume that he had already determined to seize the throne, and fail to explain why Edgar was not also removed. According to the Leges Edwardi Confessoris (‘Laws of Edward the Confessor’), the young Edgar was given the designation ‘ætheling’, meaning ‘throneworthy’, by the king, his great-uncle Edward the Confessor. He appears in the Liber vitae of the New Minster at Winchester, c.1060, as Edgar clito (the Latin equivalent of ætheling). Since Edgar was not the son of a king, this was apparently a political statement by the childless King Edward concerning the succession. However, the early sources agree that when Edward died on 4 or 5 January 1066, he had passed over Edgar by bequeathing the kingdom to Earl Harold. Although some leading nobles may have wished to crown him, political reality told against Edgar. While his youth was not in itself decisive, he had no powerful kin to promote him and to resist Earl Harold, the dominant figure in English politics and the most powerful man in the kingdom. The initial opposition of the brothers Eadwine and Morcar, earls of Mercia and Northumbria, was a consequence of their own ambition rather than concern for Edgar's legitimacy, and they were won over by Bishop Wulfstan of Worcester.
http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/dnb/8465.html
ハンガリー生まれだったんだ。Edward the Confessorは彼の「大叔父」に中たる。
DNBは”in 1066 he was the only candidate for the throne who could trace his descent from an English king.”とEdgarの正統性を主張している。しかし、http://www.battle1066.com/claim.shtmlでは、寧ろWilliam the Conquerorの方の正統性が主張されている。また、http://www.the-orb.net/textbooks/muhlberger/1066.htmlにはHaroldのライヴァルの名前があるのだが、そこにEdgarの名はない*1ノルウェー王Harold Hardradaとノルマンディ侯William。
ところで、http://www.battle1066.com/claim.shtmlでHaroldの非正統性が主張されているのだが、それは血縁的な理由ではなく宗教上の理由である;

William of Poitiers made a suggestion that Harold was never a true king of England at all because he was consecrated by Archbishop Stigand, who was the replacement in 1052 for the Norman, Robert of Jumieges, who was removed before his death under the jurisdiction of Godwin. Stigand was immediately excommunicated. This fact gave the Normans the ammunition to declare Harold a usurper, and hence, not a true king. Unfortunately for William, Harold had realised that this may have caused a problem, had ensured that Ealdred, the Archbishop of York, had carried out the ceremony (as he had also done for William).
William of PoitiersはWilliam the Conquerorの伝記作者。

*1:10代の少年だったのだから当然か。